Crude drug sample data base

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Crude drug name

Market name白参
Formal name人参
Japanese nameにんじん, Ninjin
Vernacular nameNinjin
Latin nameGinseng Radix (JP), Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (CP)
English nameGinseng (JP), (CP)
Grade1 st
Original plant namePanax ginseng C. A. Meyer, (Otaneninjin), Ginseng
Family nameAraliaceae
Used partClassificationPlant origin
Sub classification root
Production area informationJapan, Nagano Pref.
Collection informationJapan, Nagano Pref., Shinshu Yakuhin Institute
Collection date1977/11/22
CollectorTsuneo Namba
TMPW No.13

The capital city, provincial capital city or the representative  
location of its administrative area is indicated.  
36.6512986
138.18095570000003
Production area information
Japan,Nagano Pref.
https://ethmed.toyama-wakan.net/img/pin_san.png
36.6512986
138.18095570000003
Collection information
Japan,Nagano Pref.
https://ethmed.toyama-wakan.net/img/pin_nyu.png

Scientific information data base

Common name人参, Renshen, Ginseng Radix (JP18), Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (CP2020), Ginseng (JP18, CP2020)
Synonyms白参, 生干人参, 曲参, 半曲参
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Original plant namePanax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Panax schinseng Nees), (Otaneninjin)
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Family nameAraliaceae
Used partroot
Quality for selectionA high quality Ginseng has long root with big branch and long rhizome. The one of excessive sweetness is lower quality. (NI)
Official compendiumJP XVIII, CP (2020 ed.)
Clinical applicationWidely used as tonic, cardiotonic, replenishing vital essence, tranquilizer, stomachic and anti-fatigue drug. Ginseng cures the decline of metabolism by gastric weakness. It is applied to treat invalid's gastric stagnation, indigestion, nausea, chest pain, relaxant diarrhea and lack of appetite.
Medical systemTraditional Chinese medicine
Drug effect in
traditional medicine
Traditional
classification
Drugs for replenishing Qi (vital energy)
Beneficial effect[Property and Flavor] Mild warm; sweet and mild bitter.
[Meridian Tropism] Spleen, lung, heart and kidney meridians.
[Actions] To tonify qi, relieve collapse-syndrome and indistinct pulse, invigorate spleen and lung. To promote the production of body fluid, calm the mind.
[Indications] For general weakness with impending collapse, cold limbs and faint pulse, diminished function of the spleen with loss of appetite, cough due to diminished function of the lung, thirst due to impairment of body fluid, diabetes caused by internal heat, general weakness irritability and insomnia in chronic disease, impotence or frigidity, heart failure, cardiogenic shock.
Chemical constituentOther aliphatic and related compounds
(*C1,C2):
Panaxynol, Panaxydol, Heptadece-1-en-4,6-diyn-3,9-diol

Sugar
(*C1,C2):
D-Glucose, D-Fructose, Sucrose, Maltose, Trisaccharide A, Trisaccharide B, Trisaccharide C

Sesquiterpenoids
(*C1,C2):
Panacene, beta-Elemene

Triterpenoids
(*C1,C2):
Oleanolic acid, (20S)-Protopanaxadiol, (20S)-Protopanaxatriol

Triterpenoid saponins
(*C1,C2,C3):
Ginsenoside Ro, Ginsenoside Ra1, Ginsenoside Ra2, Ginsenoside Rb1, Ginsenoside Rb2, Ginsenoside Rb3, Ginsenoside Rc, Ginsenoside Rd, Ginsenoside Re, Ginsenoside Rf, Ginsenoside Rg1, Ginsenoside Rg2, Ginsenoside Rh, Ginsenoside La(葉/leaves), 24(S)-Pseudoginsenoside F11, Pseudoginsenoside Rc1

Steroids
(*C1,C2):
beta-Sitosterol, beta-Sitosterylglucoside

Simple nitrogen containing compounds
(*C1,C2):
Choline

Others
(*C1,C2):
Vitamin B

Chemical structure





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Pharmacological effectWater extract:hypoglycemic, decreases blood ketones, enhances RNA synthesis in the liver. Ethanol extract:enhances cholinergic action, antihypertensive, accelerates breathing, hypoglycemic, increases red blood cells, promotes digestive motion, enhances adrenocortical function. Saponin fraction:stimulates central nervous system, reduces stress, effects the central nerve function (Rb group, sedation; Re group, excitation).
DNA sequence18SrRNA: D83275(*S1), matK: D89057(*S2), ITS:U41680,U41681,U41682, AB043871, AB043872; Traditioal Medical & Parmaceutical Database.
Classical reference
(Chinese Herbal Classic "Zhenglei bencao")
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DiseaseTiredness, Weak constitution, Decline of strength after illness, General malaise, Dyspnea, Shortness of breath, Thirst, Amnesia, Palpitation, Anxiety
FormulationIoto, Ikosan, Ifuto, Unkeito, Untanto, Ekkiyoeito, En'nenhangeto, Ogibekkoto, Orento, Orenshodokuin, Kaikyushokushoto, Kagenhachimotsuto, Kashokuyohito, Kamiuntanto, Kamikihito, Kankyooren'ogon'ninjinto, Kankyoninjinhangegan, Kanzoshashinto, Kippichikujoto, Kihito, Gyakubanto, Kyukihochuto, Kumisaikoto, Keishikashakuyakushokyoninjinto, Keishininjinto, Keihito, Kosharikkunshito, Kochinmuyusan, Kobokushokyohangekanzoninjinto, Kokonrokukenzokumeito, Goshuyuto, Saikanto, Saikokaryukotsuboreito, Saikokyohangekakaroto, Saikokeishito, Saikoshimotsuto, Saishakurikkunshito, Saibokuto, Saireito, Shionsan, Shigyakukaninjinto, Shikunshito, Jijinmeimokuto (Jinkimeimouto), Shisowakiin, Shichikensan, Shichimibyakujutsuto, Shakanzoto, Shahito, Shahitokaryukotsuboreito, Juzentaihoto, Shunrinshakusekishito, Shokyokanzoto, Shokyoshashinto, Shosaikoto, Shosaikotokaorenbukuryo, Shosaikogohangekobokuto, Shoshinto, Shozokumeito, Shobaishashinto, Shohito, Shomyakusan, Jinkimeimokuto, Jinsoin, Jinryobyakujutsusan, Jintanto, Seishoekkito, Seishinto, Seishinrenshiin, Seinetsuhokito, Zenshikunshito, Zenshibyakujutsusan, Sempukukataishasekito, Sogento, Zosonmokuboito, Zokumeito, Daikenchuto, Daitokato, Daihangeto, Daibyakuchuin, Daibofuto, Danrito, Jiohanho, Chikujountanto, Chikuyoto, Chikuyosekkoto, Chimobukuryoto, Chukenchuto, Chotosan, Choburichuto, Teizento, Tokito, Tokinentsuto, Dokkatsukiseito, Naitaku-san, Naitaku-san, Nyoshinsan, Ninjinsan, Ninjinto, Ninjin-yoei-to, Ninjin-yoei-to, Bakumondoto, Bakumondoinshi, Hachimigangoninjinto, Hachimotsuto, Hacchinto, Hangeshashinto, Hangebyakujutsutemmato, Byakkokaninjinto, Bukuryoin, Bukuryoshigyakuto, Bukuryhoshinto, Bushito, Bushirichuto, Fuhishomyakusankabyakukyu, Hointo, Hokikenchuto, Hojinto, Botanpisan, Hochuekkito, Hochujishitsuto, Hontonto, Hontonto, Hontonto, Hontonto, Hontonto, Hontonbukuryoto, Mokuboito, Mokuboikyosekkokabukuryoboshoto, Rikkunshito, Yohaito, Richuankaito, Richuto, Rokumotsuogonto, Koshayoito
Related drugs"Hongshen" (Ginseng Radix Rubra), "Zhujierensheng" (Panax Japonicus Rhizome ), "Guangdongrenshen" (Panacis Quinquefolii Radix), "Sanqirenshen" (Panacis Notoginseng Radix)
ReferencesJP18: The 18th edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia.
CP2020: Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2020 edi.
S1)Biol.Pharm.Bull.,19,1530(1996).
S2)Biol.Pharm.Bull.20,765(1997).
C1)The Encyclopedia of Wakan-Yaku with Color Pictures Vol. I, p 2.
C2)Chem.Pharm.Bull.,37,1966(1989).
C3)Chem.Pharm.Bull.,34,730(1986).
Last renewal date2021/09/27