Crude drug sample data base

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Crude drug name

Market name地楡
Formal name地楡
Japanese nameちゆ, Chiyu
Vernacular nameDiyu
Latin nameSanguisorbae Radix (CP)
English nameGarden Burnet Root (CP)
Original plant nameSanguisorba officinalis L. or Sanguisorba officinalis L. var. longifolia (Bert.) Yu et Li, (Waremokō or its varietas)
Family nameRosaceae
Used partClassificationPlant origin
Sub classification root
Production area informationPeople's Republic of China
CollectorKatsuko Komatsu, et al.
TMPW No.284

Scientific information data base

Common name地楡, Diyu, Sanguisorbae Radix (CP2020), Garden Burnet Root (CP2020)
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Original plant nameSanguisorba officinalis L.1, Sanguisorba officinalis L. var. longifolia (Bert.) Yu et Li or the variant species, (Waremokō1 and its varietas) (B1)
original plant image
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Family nameRosaceae
Used partroot
Quality for selectionThe external of a good one is dark brown with longitudinal wrinkles and the internal is white. It is fresh, and the shape is fusiform and axial. The both ends are elongated. (NI)
Official compendiumCP (2020 ed.)
Clinical applicationAs an astringent and hemostatic, it is applied for bloody dysentery, hemorrhoids, metrorrhagia, hematemesis, hemoptysis, melena, hypermenorrhea and hematochezia. For external use, it works wonders for dermatitis, mucitis, eczema, incised wound and burns.
Medical systemTraditional Chinese medicine
Drug effect in
traditional medicine
Beneficial effect[Property and Flavor] Mild cold; bittter, sour and agtringent.
[Meridian Tropism] Liver and large intestine meridians.
[Actions] To cool the blood to stanch bleeding , remove toxin and promote wound healing.
[Indications] Bloody stool, hemorrhoid. bleeding, blood dysentery, flooding and spotting, scald and burn, swelling abscess, sore and toxin.
Chemical constituentTriterpenoid saponins
Sanguisorbin (ゲニン/genin = Tomentosolic acid), Ziyu-glycoside I, Ziyu-glycoside II (ゲニン/genin = Pomolic acid)

Carotenoids & Vitamin A
Vitamin A (approx. 0.04%)

Tannin (approx. 17%)

Chemical structure

Pharmacological effect Suppression of bacteria (ethanol extract: Escherichia coli, myxomycete, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus, Salmonella typhi, paratyphoid bacillus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), antibacterial (Neisseria meningitidis). Antiinflammatory, suppression of apoptosis induced by the renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, restoration of renal function (administration in advance) (P1), improving the renal function due to LPS ( administration in advance, NO production system) (P2).
DNA sequenceAF183533, AF183556
Classical reference
(Chinese Herbal Classic "Zhenglei bencao")
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DiseaseHematemesis, Nasal hemorrhage, Hematuria, Hematochezia, Bleeding hemorrhoids, Hemorrhagic diarrhea, Irregular vaginal bleeding, Hypermenorrhea, Pyogenic dermatosis, Eczema, Incised wound, Burn
Formulationrarely used in formula
ReferencesCP2020: Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2020 edi.
B1)Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 39, 301-311 (1985).
C1)The Encyclopedia of Wakan-Yaku with Color Pictures Vol. I, pp 70-71.
P1)J. Trad. Med., 16, 97-101 (1999).
P2)Biol. Pharm. Bull., 22, 1327-1330 (1999).
RemarksThe original plant of Diyu (地楡) is Sanguisorba officinalis. The variants include var. longifolia (Bert.) Yu et Li, var. carnea (Fisch.) Regel ex Maxim. (Jap. name: Ezowaremokō), var. glandulosa (Kom.) Worosch and var. longifolia (Kitag.) Yu et Li.
Besides the above, the root of following plants are used for medicinal purposes:
S. tenuifolia Fisch. ex Link and S. tenuifolia Fisch. ex Link var. alba Trautv. et Meyer (Nagabonoshirowaremokō in Jap.) in northeast of China, S. applanata Yu et Li and its variants in Yantai of Shandong, S. alpina Bunge in a part of Ningxia.
Also, the rhizome of Polygonum bistorta L. of family Polygonaceae (Ibukitoranoo in Jap.) is called Diyu in Guiyang of Guizhou and the rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (Itadori in Jap.) is called "Tudiyu" (土地楡, Dochiyu in Jap.) in southern Sichuan.
As for the rest, in Xinyang of Henan the rhizome of Astilbe chinensis Maxim. ex Fr. et Sav. of family Saxifragaceae is called "Zidiyu" (紫地楡, Shichiyu in Jap.) or "Chidiyu" (赤地楡, Sekichiyu in Jap.) which is also the name for the root of Geranium strictipe Kunth of family Geraniaceae in Kunming of Yunnan. Additionally, in a part of Yunnan, the root of Potentilla peduncularis D. Don of family Rosaceae and P. siemersiana Lehm. are called "Baidiyu" (白地楡, Hakuchiyu in Jap.). However, all of them are misused for Diyu.
In Korean market, most Diyu/Jiyu is the blended roots of S. officinalis L., S. officinalis L. var. longifolia (Bert.) Yu et Li and S. tenuifolia Fisch. ex Link var. alba Trautv. et Meyer. (B1)
Last renewal date2021/09/28