Crude drug sample data base

※Click on the image to enlarge it.
Crude drug name

Market name白朮
Formal name白朮
Japanese nameびゃくじゅつ, Byakujutsu
Vernacular nameBaizhu
Latin nameAtractylodis Rhizoma (JP), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (CP)
English nameAtractylodes Rhizome (JP), Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (CP)
Original plant nameAtractylodes japonica Koidzumi ex Kitamura, (Okera)
Family nameCompositae
Used partClassificationPlant origin
Sub classification rhizome
TMPW No.372

Scientific information data base

Common name白朮, Baizhu, Atractylodis Rhizoma (JP18), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (CP2020), Atractylodes Rhizome (JP18), Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (CP2020)
Synonyms天生朮, 浙白朮, 唐白朮, 三好白朮, 和白朮
crude drug image
※Click on the image to enlarge it.
Original plant nameAtractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi ( = Atractylodes ovata De Candolle)1, Atractylodes japonica Koidzumi ex Kitamura2, (Ōbanaokera [CN products]1, Okera [JP&KR products]2)
original plant image
※Click on the image to enlarge it.
Family nameCompositae
Used partrhizome
Quality for selectionGood Baizhu is not damaged by insects and has a strong odor. Chinese Baizhu is better quality.(TN)
Official compendiumJP XVIII, CP (2020 ed.)
Clinical applicationAs a stomachic, diuretic, antidiarrheal drug, for regulating digestion, stopping sweating, baizhu is applied for gastroenteritis, indigestion, diarrhea, poor urination by impaired hepatic function, frequent urination, edema, debilitation, spontaneous sweating and general aching of the body. In Chinese medicine, baizhu is a key medicine for eliminating dampness. It is widely used for deficiency of spleen-qi.
Medical systemTraditional Chinese medicine
Drug effect in
traditional medicine
Drugs for replenishing Qi (vital energy)
Beneficial effect[Property and Flavor] Warm; bitter and sweet.
[Meridian Tropism] Spleen and stomach.
[Actions] To fortify the spleen, replenish qi, dry dampness, induce urination, stop sweating, and prevent miscarriage.
[Indications] Spleen deficiency and reduced food intake, abdominal distension and diarrhea, dizziness and palpitation caused by phlegm-fluid retention, edema, spontaneous sweating, and threatened abortion.
Chemical constituentOther aliphatic and related compounds
A. japonica (*C1):
Diacetylatractylodiol, (4E,6E,12E)-Tetradecatriene-8,10-diyne-1,3-diol diacetate, (6E,12E)-Tetradecadiene-8,10-diyne-1,3-diol diacetate
A. ovata (*C1):
(4E,6E,12E)-1-Acetoxy-3-senecioyloxytetradeca-4,6,12-trien-8,10-diyn-14-ol, (4E,6E,12E)-1-Acetoxy-3-isovaleryloxytetradeca-4,6,12-trien-8,10-diyn-14-ol

A. japonica (*C1):
Atractan A, Atractan B, Atractan C

A. japonica (*C1):
Atractylone, 3beta-Acetoxyatractylone, 3beta-Hydroxyatractylone, Atractylenolide I, Atractylenolide II, Atractylenolide III, 4(15),7(11)-Selinadien-8-one
A. ovata (*C1):
Atractylone, gamma-Cadinene, gamma-Patchoulene

A. ovata (*C1):

Other aromatic derivatives
A. japonica (*C1):

A. japonica (*C1):
A. ovata (*C1):
Butenolide A

Chemical structure

Pharmacological effectAntiinflammatory (decoction). Diuretic (ethanol extract). Antitumor (decoction).
DNA sequenceAB008758, AB008759, AB008760, AB008761, AB008762; Traditioal Medical & Parmaceutical Database.
Classical reference
(Chinese Herbal Classic "Zhenglei bencao")
※Click this image to see the actual image
DiseaseDyspepsia, Colitis, Anorexia, Muddy and watery stool, Full stomach, Mlaise, Abdominal pain, Chill, Edema, Oliguria, Lightheadedness, Vertigo, Diarrhea, Spontaneous sweating, Threatened abortion, Threatened abortion, Swelling and pain of joint
FormulationAnzanto, Ioto, Ikosan, Ifuto, Ireito, Inchingoreisan, Ureitsukito, Ekkiyoeito, Eppikajutsuto, Odoto, Kagen'ireito, Kagenhachimotsuto, Kashokuyohito, Kakkoshokisan, Kakkonkaryojutsubuto, Kabinto, Kamikihito, Kamishoyosan, Kamishoyosangoshimotsuto, Kamihassento, Kamiheiisan, Kijutsuto, Kihito, Gyakubanto, Kyukichoketsuin, Kyukihochuto, Gyokuheifusan, Kinkohojutsubuto, Keishikajutsubuto, Keishikaryojutsubuto, Keishikyokeikeikabukuryobyakujutsuto, Keishishakuyakuchimoto, Keishinieppiichito, Keishininjinto, Kosharikkunshito, Goshakusan, Goreisan, Saikobekkoto, Saishakurikkunshito, Saireito, Jiinkokato, Jiinshihoto, Shikunshito, Shichimibyakujutsuto, Jippito, Juzentaihoto, Jumizasan, Junkiwachuto, Shunrinshakusekishito, Shokanto, Shohito, Shoyosan, Shoyosankato, Shireito, Jingyobofuto, Jinryobyakujutsusan, Jintanto, Shimbuto, Seikanto, Seishoekkito, Seinetsuhokito, Zenshikunshito, Zenshibyakujutsusan, Sogento, Daitokato, Daibofuto, Takushato, Chimobukuryoto, Chuseito, Choburichuto, Tokisan, Tokishakuyakusanmatsu, Tokishakuyakusanryo, Tokinentsuto, Tokibyakujutsusan, Tokibyakujutsuto, Dosuibukuryoto, Dotaitsukeito, Nijutsuto, Nyoshinsan, Ninjinto, Ninjin-yoei-to, Hachimigangoninjinto, Hachimishoyosan, Hachimotsuto, Hacchinto, Hangebyakujutsutemmato, Byakujutsubushito, Bukuryoin, Bukuryotakushato, Bukuryhoshinto, Bushito, Bushirichuto, Fushinto, Bunshoto, Bofutsushosan, Hokikenchuto, Hochuekkito, Hochujishitsuto, Maokajutsuto, Maokaryojutsubuto, Mibakuekkito, Meiroin, Yokukansankachinpihangeto, Yokukansankachinpihangeto, Richuankaito, Richuto, Rikkunshito, Ryokyojutsukanto, Ryokeijutsukanto, Reiyoukakuin, Renjuin, Rogyokuto, Rokumotsubushito, Koshayoito
Related drugsCangzhu (the rhizome of Atractylodes lancea DC., A. chinensis Koidz. or their interspecific hybrids)
ReferencesJP18: The 18th edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia.
CP2020: Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2020 edi.
C1) The Encyclopedia of Wakan-Yaku with Color Pictures Vol. I, pp 47-50.
C2) Outline of Pharmacognosy, a Textbook, p218.
RemarksBoth Japanese and Korean Baizhu (白朮) are the barked rhizome of Atractylodes japonica, which are called, in Japanese name, "Miyoshibyakujutsu", "Tamabyakujutsu", "Donkonbyakujutsu" and others. Though the origin of all Chinese Baizhu is Atractylodes macrocephala, they have various names such as "Zhezhu", "Tianshengzhu", "Dongzu, "Yezhu" etc. depending on the production areas and the processing methods. These are listed in the Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China as Baizhu (Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome). In Japan, occasionally, the Japanese Baizhu is called "Wabyakujutsu" and the Chinese one is called "Tōbyakujutsu". The main component of essential oil in both Baizhu is atractylone.
The medicinal properties of Baizhu and Cangzhu (蒼朮), a related drug, are the same as long as their actions are to strengthen the function of the stomach and eliminate dampness. However, Baizhu tends to have the advantage of the former property and Cangzhu is said to be good at the latter (to alleviate water retention, inducing diuresis and diaphoresis). Therefore, Baizhu is used to treat deficiency in the spleen of the insufficiency symptom complex, and Cangzhu is used to treat excessive pathogenic heat of excess syndrome.
Last renewal date2021/09/27